India detected 50,129 cases of the novel coronavirus in the 24 hours ending 9 am Sunday, taking its overall tally to 78.64 lakh. The detection of new cases has remained below 60,000 for the last seven days. India’s tally of 78,64,811 cases includes 6,68,154 patients who are undergoing treatment, 70,78,123 who have recovered and 1,18,534 deaths. The active cases have declined for the 22nd consecutive day and is now the lowest since August 13.
Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic. But scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective coronavirus vaccine by next year. Researchers are testing 48 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and at least 89 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.
Work began in January with the deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, and now 10 have reached the final stages of testing. Some of these trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few vaccines may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.
Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in animals.
While these vaccines may potentially prevent infection, they cannot cure the disease. For an overview of treatments for Covid-19, see our Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker.
48 vaccines in clinical trials on humans
|33 Vaccines Testing Safety And Dosage||14 Vaccines In Expand Safety Trial||12 Vaccines In Large Efficacy Test||6 Vaccines Approved For Early or Limited Used||0 Vaccines For Full Used|
The Vaccine Testing Process
PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice , monkeys to see if it produces an immune response. We have confirmed 89 preclinical vaccines in active development.
PHASE 1 SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety , dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.
PHASE 2 EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine, acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.
PHASE 3 EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected. Compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus. In June, the F.D.A. advised vaccine makers that they would want, to see evidence that vaccines can protect at least 50 percent of those who receive it. In addition, Phase 3 trials are large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects that might be missed in earlier studies.
APPROVAL: Regulators in each country review the trial results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval. Once a vaccine is licensed, researchers continue to monitor people who receive it to make sure it’s safe and effective.
Some Famous Company In Testing Phase